The Modern Language Association (MLA) Style is widely used for identifying research sources. It identifies each source you consulted in preparing your paper, the specific information you used, and where in the source that the information was found. The following examples are based on the MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers, 7th ed. (Ref LB2369 .G53 2009) The numbers in [ ] refer to the appropriate chapters in the handbook.
There is a significant amount of dating violence among teens in Hawaii (Gordon D1).
Or, place the author's name within the sentence
Limbaugh concluded that most large concentrations of reef fish are cleaning stations (110).
Then, provide the complete description of each source in your Works Cited list. The Works Cited list, or Bibliography, is a list of the sources cited or consulted in preparing your research paper, arranged alphabetically by author's last name, or when there is no author, by the first word of the title (except A, An, The).
Gordon, Mike. "Teen Dating Violence." Honolulu Advertiser 14 Apr. 2009, home final ed.: D1+. Print.
Limbaugh, Conrad. "Cleaning Symbiosis." Life in the Sea. Comp. Andrew Todd Newberry. San Francisco: Freeman, 1982. 104-11. Print.
Keep track of the sources you use as you do your research and draft your paper. Make sure that you have all of the publication information for each source. It can be helpful to have a working bibliography as you go, with a backup of the computer file and/or a print-out. Although it is not needed for the Works Cited, it may also be helpful to keep a record of how you located each source, such as the call numbers of books and URLs of web sites.
Author. Title of Book. City of Publication: Publisher, Year. Type of Material.This is the basic format for a Works Cited entry.
Diamond, Jared. Guns, Germs, and Steel: The Fates of Human Societies. New York: Norton, 1999. Print.
King, Samuel P., and Randall W. Roth. Broken Trust: Greed, Mismanagement, and Political Manipulation at America's Largest Charitable Trust. Honolulu: U of Hawaii P, 2006. Print.
Laverty, Melina F., Eleanor J. Sterling, Amelia Chiles, and Georgina Cullman. Biodiversity 101. Westport: Greenwood, 2008. Print.
Lucas, John S., and Paul C. Southgate, eds. Aquaculture: Farming Aquatic Animals and Plants. Oxford: Blackwell, 2003. Print.
American Welding Society Committee on High-Energy Beam Welding and Cutting. Process Specification and Operator Qualification for Laser Beam Welding. Miami: American Welding Society, 2008. Print.
State of Hawaii. Dept. of Business, Economic Development and Tourism. Visitors Research Report. Honolulu: DBEDT, 2007. Print.
Gralla, Preston. How Wireless Works. 2nd ed. Indianapolis: Que, 2006. Print.
Author of Story. "Title of Story." Title of Book. Editor. City of Publication: Publisher, Year. Page(s). Type of Material.
Humphries, LaJean. "How to Evaluate a Web Site." Web of Deception: Misinformation on the Internet. Ed. Anne P. Mintz. Medford: CyberAge, 2002. 165-73. Print.
Smith, Erik L. "Fighting to Regain Custody of My Son." Adoption. Ed. David M. Haugen and Matthew J. Box. Detroit: Greenhaven, 2006. 36-40. Print. Social Issues Firsthand.
Pelley, Patricia M. "Vietnam." The World Book Encyclopedia. 2008 ed. 2008. Print.
Author of Article (if given). "Article Title." Title of Reference Book. Editor. Vol. number (if any). City of Publication: Publisher, Year. Page(s). Type of Material.
Butwell, Richard. "Vietnam." Lands and Peoples. Vol. 2. Danbury: Grolier, 2001. 293-302. Print.
Jamieson, Neil. L. "Vietnamese." Encyclopedia of Modern Asia. Ed. David Levinson and Karen Christenson. Vol. 6. New York: Scribner's, 2002. Print. 6 vols.
Scott, Susan. Exploring Hanauma Bay. Honolulu: U of Hawaii P, 1993. Print.
---. Plants and Animals of Hawaii. Honolulu: Bess Press, 1991. Print.
Author. "Title of Article." Title of Magazine Date: Page(s). Type of Material.
"Tweet Liberty." Sports Illustrated 30 Mar. 2009: 18. Print.
Kelley, Raina. "Octomom Hypocrisy." Newsweek 16 Mar. 2009: 58. Print.
Reynolds, Kim. "Body Doubles." Motor Trend May 2009: 52-60. Print.
Estroff, Sharon Duke. "I Was an Undercover Penguin." Good Housekeeping Feb. 2009: 99+. Print.
Author. "Title of Article." Title of Journal Volume number.Issue number (Year): Pages. Type of Material.
Baskin, Yvonne. "Sea Sickness: The Upsurge in Marine Diseases." Bioscience 56.6 (2006): 464-69. Print.
Davis, William D., Thomas Cleary, Michelle Donnelly, and Samuel Hellerman. "Using Sensor Signals to Analyze Fires." Fire Technology 39.4 (2003): 295-308. Print.
Author. "Title of Article." Title of Newspaper Date, edition: Page(s). Type of Material.
Boylan, Peter. "Man Pleads Guilty to Fraud." Honolulu Advertiser 17 Apr. 2009, home final ed.: B1+. Print.
Dreazen, Yochi J., and Loretta Chao. "U.S. Asks China to Account for Tiananmen." Wall Street Journal 4 June 2009: A8. Print.
Kalani, Nanea. "Stimulus Money for Technology Available, Could Be Hard to Get." Pacific Business News [Honolulu] 5 June 2009: 4. Print.
"Don't Block Preschool Funds." Editorial. Honolulu Star Bulletin 13 Apr. 2009: 20. Print.
Author. "Title of the Web Page." Title of the Overall Web Site. Version or Edition. Publisher or Sponsor, Date. Web. Date of Access.
Altonn, Helen. "Marine Team Sounds Alarm for Reefs." StarBulletin.com. Star Bulletin, 29 Aug. 2008. Web. 17 June 2009.
"Hawaii Drunk Driving Statistics." Alcohol Alert. KeRo, 2009. Web. 17 Mar. 2009.
Holahan, Catherine. "Eddie Bauer Files for Bankruptcy." MSN Money. Microsoft, 17 June 2009. Web. 17 June 2009.
Landau, Elizabeth. "CDC: Swine Flu Viruses in U.S. and Mexico Match." CNN Health.com. Cable News Network, 25 Apr. 2009. Web. 17 June 2009.
Lehrman, Lewis E. Lincoln at Peoria. Lincoln Institute, n.d. Web. 17 June 2009.
The URL of the web site is optional. Provide the URL if the site is difficult to find, or if the instructor requires it. Write the URL at the end of the entry, enclosed in angle brackets. If the URL must be divided between lines, break it after a slash.
"The Norwegian Pirate Whaling Fleet." Sea Shepherd. Sea Shepherd Conservation Society, 2009. Web. 17 June 2009.
Articles on the web may not have page numbers; when page numbers are not given, write n.pag.
Author. "Title of Article." Title of Magazine Date: Page(s). Online Database Name. Web. Date of Access.
Britt, Phillip. "Taking the Byte Out of Cybercrime." Information Today Dec. 2008: 1+. General OneFile. Web. 8 June 2009.
Shapiro, Bruce. "The Executioner's Last Song." Nation 13 Apr. 2009: 5. Academic Search Premier. Web. 8 June 2009.
Author. "Title of Article." Title of Journal Volume number.Issue number (Year): Pages. Online Database Name. Web. Date of Access.
Pickett, William, Ronald J. Iannotti, Bruce Simons-Morton, and Suzanne Dostaler. "Social Environments and Physical Aggression Among 21,107 Students in the United States and Canada." Journal of School Health 79.4 (2009): 160-68. Expanded Academic ASAP. Web. 8 June 2009.
Author. "Title of Article." Title of Newspaper Date, edition: Page(s). Online Database Name. Web. Date of Access.
Lowy, Joan. "High Gas Prices Drive Down Traffic Fatalities." Washington Times 25 Aug. 2008: n. pag. SIRS Researcher. Web. 8 June 2009.
Author. Title of Book. City of Publication: Publisher, Year. Online Database Name. Web. Date of Access.
Kawamura, Yuniya. Fashion-ology: An Introduction to Fashion Studies. Oxford: Berg, 2005. ebrary. Web. 8 June 2009.
"Title of Episode." (if available) Title of Program. Responsible Person(s). Name of Network. Call letters of local station (if any), City, Broadcast Date. Television.
"The Graying of Hawaii." Insights on PBS Hawaii. Prod. Mark Delorme and Audrey Kubota. PBS. KHET, Honolulu, 18 June 2009. Television.
"A Vow of Silence." Forensic Files. Narr. Peter Thomas. Prod. Stephanie Kovac. TruTV. 14 June 2009. Television.
Title of Video. Director's Name. (and/or other Responsible Person(s)) Distributor, Year. Type of Media.
Mardi Gras: Made in China. Dir. David Redmon. Carnivalesque Films, 2008. DVD.
Picasso. Commentary by Waldemar Januszczak. Dir. Didier Baussy. Home Vision, 1985. Videocassette.
Name of Person Interviewed. Type of interview. (Personal or Telephone) Date.
Kato, Ken. Personal interview. 11 Apr. 2009.