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University of Hawaii

Honolulu Community College

GG101 Lab

Lesson Notes, Links,
Study Aids


These are the lessons in the lab manual that we will be working on throughout the semester. Changes and additional information if any can be accessed by clicking on the link in the 'notes' columnn of the table below. If there is no active link in the notes column it means that the exercise is self contained or that no problems have arisen yet.

New information will be added as things come up, so check back here frequently while working on the exercises in the lesson.If you find a web site that is helpful please send it to me at Laulima. I will add it to the list if deemed appropriate.

Please write to the instructor using the message link on Laulima if you find something that is incorrect or which needs clarification in the lesson, the virtual field trip, or the video.

You are encouraged to ask questions about any of the exercises. Although I can not answer questions on the quiz specifically I will help as much as possible with the concepts and objectives of the lab exercises and lessons.

A web site that you might find useful is the USGS (US Geological Survey) science topics page. The USGS home page is at



Notes and Links


Topographic Maps

[examples of map tools]

finding bearing on a map

reading topographic maps

reading topographic maps (PDF)

strongly recommended--much better explanation than lab manual

[how to draw a cross-section]

finding latitude and longitue on maps (PDF)

Shaded Relief Map of United States


[Land Survey]

[Topographic Maps Online]

[Honolulu topo v. photo]

[Topographic Map Animations]

countouring exercise (java required)

[Selectable Topographic Maps]


Plate Tectonics

UCBerkeley: Continental Drift Animations (Fast)

USGS Dynamic Earth

Interactive World Map

UCBerkeley: Mechanism

Simple Explanations and Animations

BBC Earth

Excellent Summaries




Rock Deformation & Mountain Building

Structural Geology Lesson, Jacksonville University

Dip & Strike Applet (s-l-o-w)

Nice illstration, University of North Texas

Strucural Geology Lesson, University of Saskatchewan,

Cornell University Geologic Structure Photo Gallery


Earthquakes & Seismology

Here are two different graphics that illustrate how to find the epicenter distance using the travel time curves.

Epicenter 5500 km from seismograph station

Epicenter 3700 km from seismograph station

Click here to see illustrations of the use of the compass to find the epicenter distance



To see pictures of minerals use the Google advanced image search. Enter the name of the mineral in the "related to exact phrase" field for a particular mineral, or in the "related to all of the words" for multiple minerals.

The web site for Alphabetical Mneral Reference in the lab manual has been changed. The new link is

The web site for Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History listed in the lab manual on page 49 has changed. The new link is

Here is a some information that may help you to understand the physical properties of minerals.


These sites help in visualizing the overall look of minerals

Hawaii Geology and Minerals

Mineral "Homework Help for Students"

Rock and Mineral Pictures

James Madison University (Excellent overall info on minerals)

Here are some sites that help with identification of minerals

Mineral Identification Guide

Cal-Poly Pomona's identification flowchart. I've been looking for one like this for years. It's really good!

Amethyst Gallerie's Mineral Gallery Pay special attention to the fram on the left that has listings of minerals by name, class, groupings, and a keyword search.

General Descriptions with great links to other sites. A complete guide to many aspects of minerals (and rocks)



Links to Volcano Web Sites

USGS Volcanoes Page

Hawaiian Volcano Observatory: US Geological Survey

Volcano Information Center: University of California, Santa Barbara ***** (highy recomended)

Volcanic Hazards: Dartmouth University

Volcanic Hazards:US Geological Survey

Alaska Volcano Observatory

Global Volcanism Program: Smithsonian Institution

Cascades Volcano Observatory

Links To Help Pages

How to measure slope of volcano


Igneous Rocks

To see pictures of various rock types use the Google advanced image search. Enter the name of the rock in the "related to exact phrase" field. For example, enter 'granite', 'sedimentary rock', 'sandstone', etc. You will be surprised how many different pictures you can find that will help in identification.

Here are several different web pages that can help in understanding the origion, classification, and identification of igneous rocks.

You probably won't have time to study them all, so go to the pages and scan through them quickly to see which is most helpful.

Different students learn in different ways, so what works for one person may not be right for another. This is especially true with identification of earth materials, which requires 'fine tuning' of vision and learning to discrimiate between subtle differences in size, color and luster, and to recognize crystal forms and cleavage.

Igneous Rocks Primer: Description, Classification and Identification

Igneous Rock Identification ***** (highy recomended)

Introduction to Igneous Rocks

James Madison University

Georgia Perimeter College

California State University, Long Beach

California State University, Pomona


Sedimentary Rocks

Excellent Site for all aspects of sedimentary rocks (James Madison University)

Sedimentary Rock Identification (strongly recomended)


Metamorphism & Metamorphic Rocks

Metamorphic Rock Primer: Description, Classification, Identification:

Cal Poly Pomona

This site takes you through a series of steps of identification.It requires that you can recognize the presence of foliation and mineral grains.

James Madison University

These sites have several different pages. Follow the links to find the particular information needed.

University of North Dakota

This site is part of the UND Space Studies Virtual Campus and also contains links about volcanoes.


Age of Earth and Geologic Time

UC Berkeley: Explore Each Geological Time Period's Life, Climate and Geography


Mass Wasting

National Park Service



Nothing Yet---Send suggestions. What would you like to see?



Darcy's law is a simple formula to calculate the rate of flow of groundwater. If you take the time to think about the terms used and to understand what they mean, then the formula is very easy to apply.

The "K" in the equation is a measure of the permeability. The more permeable the rock is the more water can flow through it so it will have a bigger permeability constant.

The "A" term is the area of the region that the water is flowing through. If it is a pipe it's area would be that of a circle. Usually geological flow regions are assumed to be rectangular over short distances, so the area is simply the width times the height of the aquifer.

The term h/L is just the 'slope' of the water table. 'h' is the difference in height between two points and 'L' is the distance between those two points. It is like the gradient of a stream or the pitch of a roof.


Oceans & Coastlines

Nothing Yet---Send suggestions. What would you like to see?



Nothing Yet---Send suggestions. What would you like to see?


Economic & Resources

Nothing Yet---Send suggestions. What would you like to see?


Formal Report

Go to the 'misc' page for information about reports and links to help with report-writing.

Here is a link to sample VFT reports

Links to other virtual field trip sites


Earthwatch Log

A log is a journal that records specific events. Keep it in a document using the date of the event as a heading. If you like you can use the 'journal' from the project gallery of MSWord, under 'writing tools', or adapt it to your own format. Here is a link to some EW example reports.

Scan newspapers, magazines and internet for news about geological events. Write a short log entry that gives the date, source, and a brief description of the event. See the syllabus or FAQ for more information.

Record the date, the name and/place of the event, and a brief description of the event. Save them in a document and submit it at the end of the semester on the due date on the online schedule.

The Sunday "Honolulu Advertiser" has an 'Earthwatch' section that shows events of the previous week. You can also locate internet sites that report geologic events. Some of these are government agencies, others are university or commercial sites. Some are availabe as RSS feeds that are sent to you automatically (if your browser supports RSS, or if you have the software to receive them.)

Search Google or Yahoo for "Geologic Hazard"or "Geologic Event" or search for documents containing geology or geologic or event. You will be surprised how much information is out there.

Updated 082213